The Big Bang: What was it? When was it? Why do so many of us believe in it?
You need to answer this as if it was an 8 mark question and be confident that you are going to get full marks. Expect to talk about Hydrogen atoms, gravity, cooling and gases. Obviously you need to give more information than this poster.
The Big Bang Theory
According to theory, the universe began 13.7 billion years ago as a “singularity” – a concept that no one understands more than knowing that it is at the core of a black hole and it is a zone of infinite concentrated hot density.
From this point it inflated expanded before cooling back down and continues to expand to this day.
In the beginning the universe was the size of an atom. After a tiny immeasurable fraction of a second the universe was the size of an apple. The temperature was too high to measure. A tiny bit later the universe was cool enough for subatomic particles to form. After 3 minutes the first protons and neutrons were forming. 300000 years later the universe was 10000 degrees hot and the first hydrogen and helium atoms were starting to form. After a billion years gravity was attracting atoms together. The first stars were forming. The stars started to clump together into galaxies and some of them started to die. Nuclear fusion caused heavier elements such as sodium and iron to have been formed too and they were spat out by the dying stars. After about 15 Billion Years the temperature had stabilised and earth was starting to form.
The Big bang is the scientific explanation for the existence of our universe. It is thought to have happened around 13.7 million years ago. It is thought to have occurred as inside the center of black holes particles are put under such extreme pressure that what is termed as a “singularity” occurs. According to the theory this is where our universe began being infinitely small and hot. This then exploded or inflated sending thousands of tonnes of debris hurtling across space. These then cooled and with each cooling at separate times and different distances from the sun creating the planets and creatures we know today. Some believe that in an oscillating universe theory. This is the thought that the world is expanding and will reach on point and they begin rapidly coming back together until eventually resulting in a “Big Crunch” and another “singularity.”
The Big Bang theory is a scientific solution to the origin of the universe. A number of scientists contributed to it’s consolidation, including Georges Lemaitre and Albert Einstein, Alexander Freidmann and Edwin Hubble.
The actual theory is that all the matter in the universe was crammed into a tiny, infinitely compact and totally dense space (in the state of singularity), and then expanded very rapidly with an EXPLOSION!!!!! of heat and light. The universe as we know it now is a product of billions of years’ bonding and cooling, and expansion. The expansion of the universe was first proven by Hubble telescope when it launched in 1990. The telescope tracked galaxies beyond the milky way moving away from us at a rate proportional to their distance from us – everything is moving at an even pace as if it has been projected. This was good evidence for the theory, and we can see other evidence for the big bang in the world around us, such as background radiation. Einstein’s theory of relativity was the first theory that the universe wasn’t static, and constantly expands or contracts. This came about in 1915, before which people rarely wondered about a moving universe. The Big Bang theory has rich evidence, but science is still searching for reasons the explosion started.
Big Bang Theory.
According to this theory the universe began 13.7 billion years ago. It says it came from “singularity”. This is said to be something infinitely dense, infinitely hot and small. Singularities are zones which defy current physics laws. They are said to exist at the beginning of black holes, which are areas of intense gravitational pressure. The pressure is so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density. This theory states the universe inflated, expanded and cooled and still continues to do so. As the universe continues to expand and cool, it is known as infinitesimal singularity. This is the theory of the big bang.
The big bang theory tries to explain what events occurred at the beginning of our universe. Scientific discoveries led to us realising that our universe did have a start point. Before this start point nothing existed. According to theory, singularity became existent around 13.7 million years ago. Singularities are thought to be cores of black holes. The pressure produced by this black hole’s core is thought to be infinitely dense and scientists still don’t know why this singularity exists. This singularity then went on to inflate and expand, at an extremely fast rate, whilst cooling in the process. The big bang laid the foundations of the universe. There is much evidence to suggest that the big bang did indeed occur. Hubble’s law suggest that galaxies are moving away from us at a rate proportional to how far away they are from the earth. This ongoing expansion leads to the conclusion that at one point the universe was infinitely compacted. The remnant heat from the very big explosion that was the big bang is still here in our universe, also leading scientists to see that there was an explosion which started off our universe.
The Big Bang was an event of tremendous significance that occurred roughly 13-14 billion years ago. What is thought to have happened is that at one point there was a singularity of infinite density that suddenly expanded at an incredible speed until it reached the point that it is at today. It was not an explosion as such, but everything suddenly started to expand at a very fast speed. A split second after the big bang, the universe was at an infinitely high temperature and the universe consisted of only subatomic particles, going from the size of an atom to the size of a grapefruit in just a tiny fraction of a second. all the atoms formed started to clump together and began to form stars, galaxies and planets. No one is quite sure why this suddenly happened. This theory was first conceived when Edwin Hubble used his telescope and found that the galaxies are moving apart. This led him to believe that there must have been a start point.
The Big Bang Theory:
* The Big Bang is a popular theory, used to explain how our universe came in to existence roughly 13.7 billion years ago. According to this theory, the universe became a singularity – an undefinable zone at the center of black holes (areas of extreme gravitational pressure and heat.) There is no explanation as to why this occurred, however the singularity, allegedly inflated and expanded, until it was enormous, cooling rapidly at the same time, until it formed the size and temperature of the universe, in which we live today. By this logic, the “Bang” part of the theory’s name, is misleading. There was no explosion, just expansion on a mass scale. Furthermore, the belief that the singularity was first a ball of flame in space, is incorrect. At that time, there was no space or time, in fact this developed within the singularity that was to become the universe. The Big Bang truly came from nothing. Having said that, this doesn’t make the theory any less plausible. There is a wide range of evidence to suggest that the Big Bang did indeed happen. One piece of evidence is that the universe is proven to be ruled by “cause and effect” and by this theory, there had to be one major first cause that started the universe. To many, this is the Big Bang. Further evidence for the theory, came in the revelation by astronomer Edwin Hubble, that second galaxies appeared to be moving away from us at speeds, which are proportional to their distance. This is strong evidence for the the expansion of the universe, as well as implying that it was at one time, compacted.
The Big Bang Theory
About 15 billion years ago a huge explosion started the expansion of the universe, this explosion is known as the Big Bang. What exisisted before this event is completely unknown and is very much a personal descision. The Big Bang consisted of an explosion of space within itself unlike an explosion of a bomb were fragments are splattered. Since the Big Bang the universe has been continuously expanding.
The Big Bang Theory.
The big bang theory proposes that the universe, before a cosmic explosion, was compact, hot and dense. The explosion occurred 10-20 billion years ago and it proposes that the universe is still continuing to expand and cool. The theory is based on the general theory of relativity introduced by Albert Einstein. Edwin Hubble provided the greatest supporting evidence for the theory in 1929, when he discovered that shifting towards the red end of the spectrum, is the light of distance galaxies. The name ‘big bang’ was first used by Fred Hoyle, who ironically, was in support of his own opposing theory. Numerous pieces for evidence in support of the big bang theory include, firstly;
The fact that we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning, and the universe was initially really hot, so we should be able to find remnants of this heat, therefore in 1965 two radioastronomers discovered cosmic microwave background radiation.
The Big Bang theory is a theory that explains what happened at the beginning of the universe. The universe came into existence around 13.7 billion years ago. Nobody knows where it specifically came from, but it is thought that it was in effect of pressure. Areas of gravitational pressure are called Black holes; it is thought that the pressure was so intense that it squished these black holes into infinite density. After this, it inflated and expanded; it went from the size of an atom and hot to very cold and large. After three minutes the universe was still too hot to form into atoms but after 15 billion year the galaxies clustered under gravity, the first stars died and became heavy elements in space, which eventually formed into stars and new planets. The universe then became the size of the universe today. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) the phenomenon in 1929 and he observed the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted. This supports the big bang theory and is called ‘Hubbles Law’.
15 billion years ago All of the matter in the universe was compressed into a tiny ball the size of an atom. In a fraction of a second the tiny ball expanded in an explosion throwing the debris that would fill the empty space around the explosion. The universe then began to cool down from the 3000 million degrees kelvin. In this temperature the first protons would begin to form. 3 million years later the universe had cooled down to ten thousand degrees soon the first hydrogen and helium atoms began to form. roughly a billion years later the gravity was pulling atoms together to form stars. the nuclear fusion that was occurring in the stars created the larger atoms would form in the stars core. Stars gravitational pull began to bring stars together to create galaxies. soon the temperature began to cool down more so that planets could begin to form up from the elements from stars.
The Big Bang Theory is one of the ways we believe our universe came into existence. It is said to have happened 13.7 billion years ago. Firstly the cosmos expands from the side of an atom to a grapefruit in a fragment of a second. It is not known exactly where this explosion came from but is thought to have originated from the centre of a black hole, areas of intense gravitational pressure. It is thought that the pressure was so great that matter was squashed together into infinite density. An extremely hot group of electrons, quarks and other particles. Our universe is thought to have started as an infinitesimally small, hot, dense something.
Hubble’s Law supports the big bang theory and states that galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance. The theory is named after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who discovered this in 1929.
After about 10 seconds the swiftly cooling cosmos causes the quarks to group into protons and neutrons. After 3mins Being still to hot to form into atoms the charged electrons and protons prevent light from shining. The universe is a seething fog. After 300,000 years electrons finally combine with protons and neutrons to form atoms. After 1 billion years gravity makes hydrogen and helium gas form giant clouds that will eventually become galaxies and smaller groups of gas collapse and form stars. At 15 billion years galaxies cluster together, the first stars die and element are scattered into space which will eventually form into new stars and planets.
The Big bang Theory.
The big bang theory is a theory that the universe was just a bunch of molecules in a condensed space called the universe and then they expanded rapidly and created an explosion of matter, which is still expanding. The expansion was proven by the Hubble telescope that measured the distance of other galaxies from ours and shows they are moving away from our own. They are moving in relation to the distance they are from us. This happened about 13.7 billion years ago. Georges Lemaître originally came up with the idea.
The big bang is a scientific theory of how the universe came into being. The big bang theory says that the universe was created around 13.7 billion years ago. It is believed that the universe started from ‘singularity’, these are supposedly found in black holes and they are created by the immense pressure within them. Our universe was originally extremely hot and small, but after it’s appearance it cooled down and expanded and continues to expand at the moment in time.
The Big Bang Theory states that our universe started out as a ‘singularity’, an infinitely dense, infinitely small space that contained all the matter in the known universe. Over a period of about 13.7 billion years the universe expanded to the size it is now, and it’s still expanding. The ‘Big Bang’ as it is known did not actually involve an explosion, however it did involve massively high temperatures and rapid expansion of the universe. In the first fraction of a second the universe was at temperatures exceeding 10 trillion °C and was the size of a football. Slightly after this the universe was still rapidly expanding and also rapidly cooling but it was still too hot for anything but quarks to appear. After about 3 minutes quarks begin to clump together and the first protons, neutrons and electrons form but it is still too hot for them to form atoms. After 300000 years the first atoms form, mostly the lighter elements hydrogen and helium. Finally, several billion years later, stars reaching the end of their lifecycles explode, scattering the heavy elements throughout the universe, eventually these elements will form new stars and planets.
The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment.
The Big Bang Theory
The big bang is thought to be the point where all space and time came into existence, around 13.7 billion years ago. According to the big bang theory, the universe began expanding from a minute volume with an extremely high density and temperature. It was not an explosion, as such, matter simply rode along the stretching space like dust on the balloon’s surface. Neither was it an explosion of matter into otherwise empty space; rather space itself began with the big bang. Physicists think that even time began with the big bang. Today, almost every scientist believes in the big bang and the Catholic Church even pronounced the big bang model to be in accordance with the Bible. There are three main reasons that have lead astronomers to believe the big bang to be the start of the universe. The first is the fact that the universe is expanding. After observing numerous galaxies through telescopes and studying the wavelength of the light, astronomers have found that the universe is expanding. Galaxies are becoming further and further apart, leading them to deduce that at one point the universe must have been extremely close together. The second reason that supports the big bang is that it perfectly explains the abundance of helium and other nuclei like deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen). A hot, dense and expanding universe could have easily produced the abundance of these we see today. The third and final piece of evidence is the cosmic background radiation that can be observed from the big bang. It is the same in every direction and is like an afterglow from the explosion.
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